Go Back

Photo of Hazel Markus

Hazel Markus Social psychologist

Hazel Markus is interested in sociocultural shaping of mind and self. Specifically, her work is concerned with how gender, ethnicity, religion, social class, cohort, or region or country of national origin may influence thought and feeling, particularly self-relevant thought and feeling. Recent studies of Japanese and American college students have focused on similarities and differences in the nature of self-concept and in the functioning of self-esteem. Related studies examine age and cohort variation in the form and functioning of the self in a large representative sample of American adults.


SPSP Service to the Field Award on Behalf of Personality and Social Psychology, 2013.

Relevant Publications

H.R. Markus and S. Kitayama, "Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation," Psychol. Rev., vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 224, 1991.



Advisor Successful Societies


Stanford UniversityDepartment of Psychology


PhD (Psychology) University of Michigan


United States

Ideas Related to Hazel Markus

Research Brief | Successful Societies

Culture Influences the Health Effects of Expressing Anger

This study explores the importance of cultural context in the link between anger expression and biological health risk. Using large...

News | Successful Societies

Negative emotions are worse for the health of Americans than Japanese

Feeling unhappy is bad for health. Negative emotions are tied to mental illness and chronic physical conditions, suggesting that in...

News | Successful Societies

Tiger Mom and me

  Yale law professor Amy Chua created a controversy with her 2011 book Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother, advocating...