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How do we understand the life, groundwater and environments deep below the surface of a planet?

Earth 4D: Subsurface Science & Exploration

Overview

Beneath our feet is a vast, unexplored world consisting of up to tens of kilometres of thick crust containing water, gases, nutrients, resources, and various forms of life.

So far we investigated only a tiny fraction of the Earth’s subsurface, although it contains critical information needed to understand the complexities of chemical, physical and biological interactions on the Earth’s surface – and our everyday world. Investigating the interactions between the subsurface and the surface on Earth, the only planet we have ready access to, will inform and expand our understanding of planetary evolution and the possibility of finding life on other planets and moons in our solar system – and beyond.

The Earth 4D program’s multidisciplinary team focuses on the themes of water, life and space, with time as a fourth theme and overarching lens. No other research group has formalized this broad, disruptive approach and built a diverse intellectual community committed to tackling this challenge.


Founded in: 2019


Contact: Daniel Bacinello

Fellows & Advisors

Program Directors

GEU_VickyKaspi
Jack Mustard
Program Director

John Mustard’s interdisciplinary research seeks to understand the processes that modify and shape the surface of the Earth and other planetary bodies.

Profile Outline
Barbara Sherwood Lollar
Program Director

Barbara Sherwood Lollar is a geochemist with expertise in stable isotope geochemistry and hydrogeology, the fate of carbon-bearing fluids and gases such as CO2, CH4 and H2 in ancient fracture waters in the Earth’s crust, habitability and deep subsurface microbiology.

Fellows

Ballentine_BW

Chris Ballentine

  • Fellow
  • Earth 4D: Subsurface Science & Exploration
  • University of Oxford
  • United Kingdom
E4D_HeatherGraham

Heather Graham

  • Fellow
  • Earth 4D: Subsurface Science & Exploration
  • NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
  • United States
McIntosh_BW

Jennifer McIntosh

  • Fellow
  • Earth 4D: Subsurface Science & Exploration
  • University of Arizona
  • United States
Michalski_BW

Joe Michalski

  • Fellow
  • Earth 4D: Subsurface Science & Exploration
  • University of Hong Kong
  • China
Orphan_BW

Victoria J. Orphan

  • Fellow
  • Earth 4D: Subsurface Science & Exploration
  • California Institute of Technology
  • United States
Osburn_BW

Magdalena R. Osburn

  • Fellow
  • Earth 4D: Subsurface Science & Exploration
  • Northwestern University
  • United States
NigelSmith_BW

Nigel J.T. Smith

  • Fellow
  • Earth 4D: Subsurface Science & Exploration
  • Laurentian University
  • SNOLAB
  • Canada
Stamenkovic_BW

Vlada Stamenkovic

  • Fellow
  • Earth 4D: Subsurface Science & Exploration
  • NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)
  • California Institute of Technology
  • United States

Advisors

E4D_JanAmend

Jan Amend

  • Advisor
  • Earth 4D: Subsurface Science & Exploration
  • University of Southern California
  • United States
E4D_FumioInagaki

Fumio Inagaki

  • Advisor
  • Earth 4D: Subsurface Science & Exploration
  • Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)
  • Japan
E4D_JeffreyMcDonnell

Jeffrey McDonnell

  • Advisor
  • Earth 4D: Subsurface Science & Exploration
  • University of Saskatchewan
E4D_BenedicteMenez

Bénédicte Ménez

  • Advisor
  • Earth 4D: Subsurface Science & Exploration
  • Paris Diderot University